This could be often confusing so to remember I tried to use one word and a short explanation without getting into any technical details here.
1. Encoding = Translate
It’s goal is to converts data so it can be understood by another system. Security is not it’s concern.
ex. ASCII, Unicode
2. Encryption = Transform
It’s goal is to change the data into a different format so it’s Super Secure and will require a key to unlock. Security is it’s main concern.
ex. DES, 3DES, AES
3. Hashing = un-Touched
It’s goal is to check the data and make sure there was no modification of any kind during the transfer and the data is intact. Integrity is it’s main concern.
ex. MD5, SHA
Just remember the Triple T, Translate, Transform, un-Touched.
I tried to find a word that I can replace un-Touched which starts with T but wasn’t able to find. If anyone can come up with something better please leave a comment and I will replace it.